5 Quick & Easy Money Saving Tips For The Urban Lifestyle

Living in the city can provide you with easy access to many of the things that you need or want. Although living in the city can be convenient, it can also be pretty expensive. If you are living in an urban area, it doesn’t necessarily mean that you have to pay an arm and a leg for everything. Here are five quick and easy money saving tips that can help you save some cash even while living in the city.

Use Public Transportation

One of the best ways to save money while living in an urban area is to utilize public transportation. If you live in an area that has a good public transportation system, you can get around almost anywhere you need to go without paying for a car. If you own a car in the city, it can be very expensive. Besides paying for gas and maintenance on your car, you also have to frequently pay for parking. By riding the subway or bus, you can get around for cheap and its often quite a bit faster than driving.

Find a Roommate

In most urban areas, you can find a roommate relatively easily. If you already have a place, you can put out a classified ad mentioning that you need a roommate pretty quickly. If you don’t yet have a place, you can check the classified ads and see if anyone is looking for a roommate. Once you roommate, you be able to cut your expenses substantially. You can get someone to pay half of the rent and the utilities. Since real estate and rental fees are typically very high intermarriage is, this can be a big savings overall.

Enjoy Free Activities

Instead of paying big money to go to a play or a movie, why not enjoy some free activities? There are a number of free things to do in big cities that you can take advantage of. Many organizations host free gatherings, performances, and activities for people in the area to participate in. You could go to the park, take a walk on a walking trail or engage in one of many other free activities that are available in most cities.

Shop Online

When you live in the city, it can be costly to go out and do your shopping. You have to pay for the transportation costs and you’ll have to pay the high prices that come with most city retailers. Instead of shopping in this manner, consider buying most of the things that you need online. By doing a little bit of online shopping, you can get your purchases delivered directly to your door and you won’t even have to pay sales tax. In many areas, the sales tax savings alone is worth the process.

Shopping online also has the potential to save you quite a bit of time. Instead of walking down to the subway or bus station, traveling to the store, and then carrying your items back to your home, you can simply get online, make a purchase and have your purchases delivered to you.

Use Public Libraries

Most big cities have some very large public libraries that you can take advantage of for free. By getting a library card, you can check out books, DVDs, computer software programs, audio books and other items without paying anything. In many public libraries, you can also check out e-books with an e-reader such as a Kindle. This makes it possible for you to get most of the things that you need for entertainment purposes without spending a dime. Just make sure that you get your items back before the due date.

Teresa Wilson is a CPA and guest author at Click here to visit her full list of online college rankings.

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What is the Advance Decline Line?

What is the Advance Decline Line?

The most appropriate definition of the Advance/Decline Line is that it is a technical indicator chart which presents the changes in the value of the advance-decline index over a certain period of time. The points plotted on the chart are evaluated by calculating the difference between the number of advancing/declining issues and then summing up the result with that of the previous values.

The formula of the A/D line is as follows:

A/D Line = (# of Advancing Stocks – # of Declining Stocks) + Previous Period’s A/D Line Value

The previous periods A/D line value can also be the values of the day before. Therefore the equation can be rewritten as:

A/D Line = (# of Advancing Stocks – # of Declining Stocks) + Yesterday’s A/D Line Value

The equation above is used by people monitoring the market to predict the likelihood of a reversal. When the points obtained are plotted, the chart is read by identifying the slope. If the slope is facing downward, it is an indication of losses in the market. This also means that the market is preparing to move in the opposite direction, which means a reversal is about to occur. Similarly if the slope is facing upward, the market trend is moving toward profits and it is a healthy sign for the market.

Uses of the A/D Line

  • The A/D line is one of the simplest breadth indicators one can use to monitor the trends of the market. To understand how to use it, consider the chart shown below:

From a single glance at the chart, anyone can point out that toward the last data period the advances are greater than the declines. So this chart can indicate the advances and declines in the market.

  • Secondly, it can be used to identify the divergence.

The blue line in the top chart is drawn to connect the two subsequent highs of the market, while the blue line in the lower chart shows that there is no high. This is the divergence showing a reversal of the trend.

  • Lastly, the A/D line can be used to determine the A/D % line.

Strength of Divergence

When there is no divergence in the trend of the chart, it means that the market trend is continuing. The market is moving in a constant trend, which means that the market is strong. When there are critical markets with huge activities the people monitoring find it much easier to keep an eye on the trend. This is because when it is constant, things are mostly moving well. It is quite easy to study the chart and understand.

Weakness of Divergence

The weakness of divergence is that it is very hard to identify. Additionally most of the times, even when the market is moving upwards, the A/D line show a decline. This becomes quite confusing. The concept of reversal sometimes seems too confusing and most beginners at Forex find it tough to use the A/D line indicator.

Confusion with A/D line

To understand why the A/D line becomes confusing, let us consider the example of the NASDAQ. They had a full blown Bearish in the market, and about 70 or more stocks had moved the index higher.  Contrary to this the charts were showing declines everyday. This was because the stocks were “weighted”. This means that some of the stock had more worth than others, and made an impact on the index and was not represented on the chart.

Similarly let us consider, Microsoft which is a heavyweight technical company. They are what we call the “market cap: weighted stock, because they have huge amounts of stock in the market. For such giants, when they make a move upward, even if it is by a single point, the NASDAQ recognizes it as several points.

Therefore the changes in trends on the A/D line charts become a bit confusing for most readers. One may not always be able to detect the change in trends. However, in most cases involving smaller stocks the A/D line is very helpful.

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The Tax Efficient Way To Save For Your Children.

The Tax Efficient Way To Save For Your Children.

All children could benefit from the lump sum that a Junior ISA (a savings account launched just last November) with help from their parents in future. Only children who were born before 1 September, 2002 or after 2 January 2011 are able to qualify for this scheme, as anyone born between these dates was able to get a Child Trust Fund (CTF) instead.

CTFs were axed under the initial round of government spending cuts after Gordon Brown left office, leaving millions of children without the option of saving. Parents and savings experts alike are lobbying the government for a change in policies that would allow CTF babies into the generally higher-paying Junior ISA market, but lawmakers have thus far not rallied to the cause.


The main difference between the Junior ISA and CTF is that the latter came with a government voucher to kick start savings, while the Junior ISA relies completely on parents, grandparents, other family members to top-up children’s accounts.

The children are able to have £3,600 saved in their name each year, though the limit is set to increase in line with the consumer price index for inflation in the 2013-2014 financial tax year. This £3,600 can be invested into a stocks and shares, or cash deposit account, or any mixture of the two. The option to hold both types of accounts is particularly good for parents who want to take advantage of the historically higher returns that a stocks and shares Junior ISA account offers, but want to mitigate risk to their child’s nest egg by saving partially in a potentially safer cash Junior ISA.

Over the course of 18 years, equity investments typically have a higher performance than cash, but this is a decision that parents should consider carefully.

Tax Efficiency

One of the main draws of the Junior ISA is that all money saved for the child is free of capital gains tax, and the child can withdraw it free from any further tax when they turn 18. Parents can circumvent the ‘pound;100 rule’ this way, as in normal taxable accounts children are taxed on any income over £100 that their investments earn, if the money was a gift from their parents.

The tax-free nature of the Junior ISA is also an attractive aspect for grandparents who are looking to transfer their wealth to future generations. A Junior ISA for each grandchild may not exclude them from paying inheritance tax entirely, but saving the maximum yearly amount for 18 years could shelter a huge slice of wealth from the taxman, completely legally.

Eva Schmiz of explains the best way to deal with taxes and Junior ISAs in order to save for your childrens.

Investment Ideas for a Down Economy

Investment Ideas for a Down Economy

Despite the struggling economy, many entrepreneurs and individuals are investing lucratively. During times of economic crisis, it can be difficult to know where your money is safe. Investing as a practice can feel almost like a gamble. However, those who take chances with their investments often see a high return both during the economic difficulties and after the economic outlook improves.

  1. Property. Even though the housing market is bad for many right now, if you can afford to buy property, especially in the areas where property prices have plummeted, you should take your chance. If you don’t need to live there yourself, you can always use it as a rental property, and help others live while making money.
  2. The internet. Internet start-ups are happening all over the world, and many require an investment for the salaries of employees. Investing early in a promising internet website company or internet marketing company can help you see vast returns later on. This type of investment also offers a somewhat low risk to start off with, especially since website creation is not very expensive. Don’t let the “tech bubble” of the turn of the century scare you off; many of today’s players are profitable.
  3. Innovations that will help people. If you are going to invest in new inventions that will improve society, there is no better time to do it than in a bad economy. Innovation is always needed and appreciated, but it is crucial for re-building economies. With the government investing in job creation. Finding the innovations that will come to fruition can be no small task, but a bit of research often uncovers a gem.
  4. Small businesses. During times of economic hardship, many small businesses need extra help. It can be a smart investment to help out a great small business in your area if you believe in their business model, since there is usually a shift towards local and personal when things get tough. You will be investing in your local economy, and the payoffs could be very high if you negotiate the arrangement appropriately.
  5. Inexpensive entertainment devices. This may seem like an obvious one, but investing in new inventions and stock from old ones that will offer people new ways of enjoying themselves on a budget can help you and others during an economic crisis. The more stressed and taxed people become, the more they will need to laugh, play, and blow off steam as well.
  6. Coins. Believe it or not, investing in coins is not only inexpensive, but the metal value of pennies and nickels is increasing to the point where the metal in the coinage is more valuable than the monetary value. Because precious metals are becoming more and more rare, buying up and collecting mass amounts of coinage may pay off.
  7. Sustainable food products. If you have ever thought of investing in food, there is probably no time more optimum than in a hard economy. Food is perhaps the most important resource available on the market, and will likely never suffer as much from a bad economy as other products. In fact, when people get nervous that they may not have financial security, they tend to start stockpiling certain foods. Local foods and sustainable growing models are becoming especially popular in this economy. Avoid investing in luxury food items, but research what people start buying more of, like soup mixes.

Investing can really help you improve your financial outlook, and so much is changing during periods of economic hardship that the economy is just flexible enough to allow for change. Even if you do not have very much to invest, it can be a smart idea to invest wisely during a tough economy. With all investments, it is wise to check the current markets before you dish out the cash.

A down economy can do more than just delay retirement. It can destroy your portfolio, lead to unemployment and send you into a downward spiral that is difficult to pull out of. If you’ve found yourself beset by more than just financial difficulties and need a misdemeanor expungement, the team at is there to assist.

Ideas For Good Investments

Ideas For Good Investments

Investing your money in the right place can be helpful to make your current cash flow through and make more money. Investing is the perfect way to grow your money and make cash out of what you currently have. Everybody can succeed in different ways, and it is important for you to understand that investing in the right place is important for success in the long run. You need to make sure that you know where to invest and how often.

Ideas For Good Investments

Buy Stocks

Buying stocks may be the most common way to invest your money, but it is profitable as long as you know what to do. Buying stocks in a market that has already grown is the best way to ensure success with your investments. Too often, people neglect buying stocks because they believe that stocks are just plain useless. Once you have invested in the right place, then success is surely going to come.

Buy Airline Stocks

If you aren’t so sure which stocks to buy, consider going into the airline industry. This is a big place and business where money can be learned. Buy airline stocks today and make big money.

Sports Betting

While betting in the sports industry is difficult, if you know how to check the rates of current teams winning, you can bet on a team the majority of others say are going to win. Winning in sports betting is all about researching and making sure to look at the team’s last success. Usually you can find out what most of the people say is going to win. Betting in sports like football can give you a better chance than in horse racing. Football gives you two teams to choose from while horse racing needs you to decide on more than 5 horses in a race.

Invest in Gold

Investing in gold has lately been one of the trends in most business leaders’ eyes. If ever a piece of gold doesn’t get good returns, it will always have its natural value placed high. In the future, you could sell it and it can be worth millions of dollars. Gold is never going to lose it’s value, and investing in any piece of gold could mean big finances in the future. Just make sure to choose wisely, especially since there are so many different types of gold.

Small Business

If you have a idea, why not create a business out of it. Sometimes all you need is the imagination to find out what small business is worth doing. Many people are shocked because of other people can build a business from their ideas. A small business could not only allow you to earn a net income, but also sell it in the future once it reaches its highest level. The smallest business idea that you can ever think of can make you earn big profits. Use your imagination to help you come up with a good business idea.

Invest in Domestic Energy

Being in this part of the investment energy can make you big money in the future. Domestic energy is popular among thousands of different households in the United States. Because that not everybody is going to get energy soon, you will find that people will continue to constantly get their homes into this industry. Even when 2015 comes, people will still be in need of this energy. Getting into this market can be a big money earner, so get into this business soon.

Those investing ideas are not only powerful, but they can help you to achieve the money that you need for financial freedom. Too often, people are stuck in a rut all-day long, causing for them to struggle at building a good business. Make sure that you research and know about the business that you plan getting into. If you aren’t so educated about the topic, then you will make a few mistakes. Avoid all of them by learning about the business idea.

Christian Raves is an investment junkie. He enjoys fashion shopping with his wife all around the world, so visit “kleitas” website to learn more about him.

Personal Finances Checklist for Saving Money

Personal Finances Checklist for Saving Money

A personal finances checklist essentially provides two major benefits: it helps you remember items that may easily be overlooked and provides a detailed step-by-step guide to reaching your end goal, which is saving money. With a checklist in place, most people find that it establishes a higher standard of performance centered around clear goals.

Regardless of what you have been told or have read about saving money and general financial matters, money is a complicated affair. Every individual has different financial situations, goals, income patterns and saving methods. The options available for investment and saving are too numerous to count. This is where a personal finance checklist for saving comes in handy, to review finances on a regular basis and make appropriate changes, so you end up saving money in the long run.

Pay Yourself First

My father made himself a millionaire with a 7th grade education. What he taught me was to take 10% from your paycheck before you pay your bills. He had a saying, “If you make a dime, save a penny.” He taught me this when I was nine years old!

Teach Your Children When They Are Young

So that brings us to the next important step. Teach your children as soon as they are able understand the value of money. When my children was 3 years old I took them to the bank and helped them to open a savings account. Every week we would go to the bank and they would deposit their savings.

Where did the money come from you may be wondering. It came from they getting ten cents every time they put their toys. I paid them in pennies so that they could figure out what they made and take some for a treat, like an ice cream cone.

Credit Card Debt

Debt is a vicious cycle and credit card debt is probably the worst debt trap of all. Numerous frustrated consumers cannot understand why their debt does not lessen even after 10 years of making payments. There is no use saving when in debt; it is advisable to get rid of the debt first. Check on the following:

  • Clearing the credit card debt before using money to pursue other goals saving is pointless when the interest earned on savings is nowhere near what is paid out toward credit card loans.
  • Putting a plan in place to pay off the debt and adhering to the plan
  • Making use of credit card rewards and interest free periods for personal financial benefit


Acquire knowledge about various saving plans available to be able to make informed decisions about what saving options to choose. Consider the following:

  • Make a sizeable contribution to your employer’s 401k retirement plan
  • Contribute to an alternate saving plan to supplement retirement income
  • Based on eligibility, making a contribution to a Roth IRA
  • Automatic saving account into which a direct deposit is automatically made on a weekly or monthly basis


Formulate a personal investment strategy and stick to it even when money is in short supply.

  • Invest idle cash
  • Take advantage of tax advantaged accounts such as IRAs

Facebook’s Challenging Environment

Facebook’s Challenging Environment

Facebook’s meteoric rise from dorm-room-prank to one of the world’s most valuable companies (based on recent valuations) has been well documented. The website is used by hundreds of millions of people worldwide and in February of 2012, Mark Zuckerberg, the famous CEO of Facebook, announced that the Company had filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission for an Initial Public Offering. Facebook seems poised to capitalize on its success and its soon-to-be inflow of fresh capital, but is it all tailwinds for the company or does it face considerable headwinds as well?

Competitors Want a Piece of the Pie
Competition from other social media companies, including the up and coming Google+, could affect the profitability of Facebook. If users choose to migrate to other social media sites, Facebook’s current staggering usage rates (845 million active users a month) could drop dramatically, and with fewer users come lower income from advertisers.

Contentious Relationships with Advertisers?
Advertisers have an uneasy relationship with Facebook due to Facebook’s culture of putting users first and promising privacy. Regardless of whether in fact privacy is protected, advertisers are not convinced that Facebook is the best venue for their advertising dollars. If advertisers find the grass greener with other social media they may walk away from Facebook, reducing profitability.

Monetizing Mobile
Another challenge in the ongoing battle to retain advertising income is the fact that mobile technology, including smartphones and tablets, are increasingly the access point for users of Facebook. Currently Facebook does not put ads on its mobile applications. These devices, with their smaller screens, make it harder for advertisers to access screen space with effective ads. As users increasingly ditch their PCs and laptops in favor of mobile devices, advertisers may lose interest in trying to develop postage stamp size ads.

Google’s Android
A bigger issue with the mobile device market is the uncomfortable fact for Facebook that they do not control the technology for many of the new and up-and-coming mobile devices, especially the Android platforms. If advertisers choose to link up with other social media providers who have better relationships with the developers of apps and technology for these devices, Facebook could well find itself shut out of this emerging market altogether.

Will Monetization Trump Privacy?
Privacy, always a concern online, will be more difficult to control as ownership and control of Facebook goes public. Internet users, increasingly aware of and wary of the uses advertisers hope to develop from their personal data stored online, are rightfully anxious at the thought of what it means to their privacy when the number of shareholders of Facebook stock run to the millions. Who will control and have access to that data, and how secure will it be? If Facebook loses the trust of its users, they will flock to other media sites they perceive as more secure and respectful of their privacy.

Bye-bye Employees?
Of more immediate concern to Facebook, it is foreseeable that the creators and employees of Facebook who have made it the giant it is today may well leave the company once they become wealthy from the IPO. For those whose compensation packages have included stock options over the years, the temptation to cash in, retire and kiss Facebook goodbye may be very tempting. If many of these essential employees choose to leave Facebook, the site could find itself with a leadership, talent, and expertise vacuum that would be hard to fill, becoming a victim of its own success.

Welcome to the Patent Wars
Litigation from other platforms such as Yahoo could also impact the profitability of Facebook. Yahoo has stated in no uncertain terms that they will not shy away from litigation if Facebook balks at paying licensing fees for use of proprietary technology owned by Yahoo. This means potentially expensive patent battles tying up Facebook for years to come.

Global Challenges
Internationally, Facebook is in the same boat as all internet sites; they are at the mercy of governments who may decide that they don’t want the social media giant available within their borders, and decide to shut down access. For some countries this could be for political reasons, but giants such as India and China may well decide they would rather leverage their huge population numbers into homegrown social media sites that they create and control, and Facebook would be entering risky territory if it tried to interfere.

Clearly the growth of Facebook, phenomenal to date, will likely slow in the future, as users move to other social media and new providers come on the scene, and as owner of competing media and technology flex their muscles in the market. Facebook does not own or control the advertisers, technology developers, and governments who allow for its success. Success breeds enemies, and the success of this IPO in dollars may cost Facebook its continued existence.

David Nance is a freelance writer for EverSpark Interactive, an Atlanta SEO company that utilizes a full suite of marketing practices to maximize the return on their clients’ investment.

The Case for Frugal Collecting

The Case for Frugal Collecting

My husband and I live on a tight budget. We rarely go out to eat, we price compare everything from cantaloupes to health insurance, and new ways to save money are constantly on my mind. But in spite of our frugal lifestyle, we both have a weakness for collecting. Show us a decent deal on an item for one of our collections, and we just can’t walk away.

Books are definitely my biggest weakness. There are a couple of book series that I’m looking to complete, and when I find the next book at a used book store I usually can’t resist. Some people would say that that’s a very bad thing. They would declare that having a collection leads people into spending more than they have without letting themselves consider the consequences.

But I actually don’t think my collecting is a bad thing. In fact, I would argue that building a collection is an especially fulfilling way to spend fun money when you don’t have a lot of it.

Frugal Collecting

First off, let me say that our collected items don’t generally cost much money. They haven’t appreciated in value like the “collectables” most people think of, and are unlikely to do so in the future. We tend to pick up additions at used book stores, flea markets, thrift stores, and the occasional clearance aisle. We’re just collecting because we like the items in question, not because we expect a return on investment later.

Let me also add thatneither my nor my husband’s collecting has led us to overspend and bust the budget in any given week, month or year. Money management always comes first, and collecting second. Building a collection is just like participating in hobbies or choosing to keep pets: it’s a good choice if you can do it responsibly.

The Fun of Collecting

The really wonderful thing about adding to a collection is how satisfying it is. The five dollars I spend on a collectable feels worth a lot more because of everything that comes with it. First there is the thrill of the hunt, when I’m digging through the shelves or racks or scanning the titles at the bookstore, anticipating the sight of the item or title I’m searching for. When I find it, I not only get the excitement of having found what I’m looking for, but also the more lasting enjoyment of building a collection that matters to me. There are plenty of ways I could spend my five dollars, but adding to a collection tops the list.

As long as the item you’re collecting is affordable every now and then, why not treat yourself? Never let a collection turn into an excuse for overspending. One way to prevent a splurge when you don’t want one is to avoid the stores where you’re likely to find a collectable; i.e., if I don’t have a few dollars to spend, I don’t go to the used bookstore. But if you can trust yourself to spend wisely and at the right time, collecting is a wonderful way to spend.

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Start Saving for College!

Start Saving for College!

You cannot know what lies ahead. In ten years time you could have a thriving career in your intended field, you could be in a completely different discipline from the one in which you graduated, or you could find yourself unemployed for any number of reasons. If you are not careful, by the time it takes you to graduate college you can find yourself with piles of debt and no way to even start to pay it off. These are all reasons why it is absolutely essential to start saving now, while you are in college. There are a number of ways in which you can do this, what follows are a couple.

1. Open a Savings Account
Most banks offer you the chance to open a savings account. What this usually means is that a small portion of your account will be transferred and kept in savings so that you can start to build up a fortune of your own. You don’t have to devote chunks of your wages to savings if you start saving now, it can be as little as a dollar, and by the time you want to retire, you have saved up enough to do so without difficulty. We don’t know what the economic future of the country will be, but you do not want to get to the age when you would like to be retired, and find that you are unable to do so. If you start saving now, you will be glad that you did in years to come.

2. Be Frugal
At the best of times we should be watching what we spend, but in college it is even more important. You may think that those gold-plated sneakers are a good idea when you are buying them, but your bank account (and feet) will regret it later. Cut out any spending on anything non-necessary. That is not to say that you cannot treat yourself once in a while, but make sure that it is not every day or even every week. You can even cut back on spending for necessary items. Watch the amount of time that you eat out each week, and look for ways to save money when you are buying groceries.

If you start to save money now, you will be thankful for it later. It may seem like it can wait until you are older and have a career, but it will be less painful if you are prepared for the future and make wise money choices now. And even if you do win the lottery or come into an inheritance, you will be happy that you learned money-saving techniques when you needed them, so that you can reap the benefits when you don’t.

About the Author

Rachel is a writer for My Colleges and Careers can help you from saving for college to helping you find the right college to help you get the top careers.

The History of the Stock Exchange

The History of the Stock Exchange

Today the stock market is an integral part of our economy, and it is hard to imagine a time when it didn’t exist. That time was over 300 years ago. But, towards the end of the 17th century, when trading started in Jonathan’s Coffee House, situated near the Exchange Alley in the city of London, things began to change. In 1698 businessman and coffee drinker John Castaing issued a document called The Course of the Exchange and other things‘ which was essentially a list of goods which could be bought or sold. Of course, people have always traded goods for thousands of years but this is first official record we have of any sort of organised and premeditated buying and selling.

The word spread fast and soon people were flocking to Jonathan’s Coffee House to do business. This carried on for a few years until men were regularly being thrown out for fighting and so the trading filtered down into many other coffee shops in the city. By the end of the 17th century there were over one hundred companies buying and selling stocks in the city of London with more popping up at an alarming rate. John Castaing, who was a Huguenot broker, was now publishing his document on a Tuesday and Friday and this was used for pricing and exchange rates. Coffee shops and traders relied on this for years and he became the industry leader, possibly due to his connections with the shipping trade.

In 1748 Jonathans was burnt down by a huge fire which swept through Change Alley, burning down many of the coffeee shops which hosted stock trading. The stockbrokers, now with no where to go to trade, funded the rebuild of numerous coffee houses including Jonathans which was aptly renamed The Stock Exchange.

Meanwhile in America, which was, surprisingly, slightly slower than us to catch on, was waking up and smelling the coffee literally. The first stock exchange was the Philadelphia Stock Exchange but when the New York Stock exchange opened it quickly superceeded Philadelphia and soon became the most powerful in the world. By this point trading was spreading like wildfire and in 1801 what was formally Jonathan’s Coffee Shop, where it all began, started a membership scheme and, unless you were a member you couldn’t offically trade.

By 1836 the stock market was already an integral part of the worlds economy with several exchanges in American and England. At this time a rule book was also written up and more and more stockbrokers were trading officially within an exchange. After WW1, the economy was becoming stronger and stronger and business with foreign countries was becoming more and more frequent. Measures were put in place so that dealing with overseas clients was easier and countries such as Brazil and Chile were trading with the UK daily.

However, with this new emerging foreign market comes the possiblity of fraud and over the last fifty years foreign exchange fraud has become rife. It works by scammers convincing traders that they can make a fortune by trading in the foreign exchange market. There are many many schemes but they all work in a similar way; traders are promised a huge return for an initial investment of normally between $5,000 – $10,000. They happily stump up the cash but never see the returns. By this point the scammers are away with their money.

With trading becoming more and more sophisticated as the years go by, and organisations attempting to whittle out fraud, the stock market is stronger than ever and will continue to be one of the most important aspects of the modern world.

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